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    建筑外墻保溫材料

    作者:匿名    訪問量:2887    發布時間:2013/9/18

    外墻外保溫系統的防火構造措檀越要有四個方面:防火隔離帶、擋火梁、無空腔構造和防火保護面層。

    1、防火隔離帶

    需要指出的是對于使用熱塑性可燃、易燃材料的外墻外保溫系統,因為發生火災時易發生滴落、流淌火災,即使設置防火隔離帶也輕易發生火災“跳躍式”蔓延,因此應用防火隔離帶技術,必需同時對外墻外保溫材料做出一定的限制。防火隔斷的尺寸應根據建筑的重要性和保溫材料的燃燒機能確定并在規范中予以明確劃定。
    防火隔離帶應選擇不燃材料,在空腔結構中應是破壞空腔構造的整體技術,并且在垂直方向和水平方向都應該設置。防火隔離帶能夠有效地阻止火焰蔓延,防止外墻外保溫系統墻面整體燃燒,起到“防火分區”和“防火間距”的作用,墻板機在外墻保溫系統特別在空腔構造的幕墻結構中應大量應用。

    2、擋火梁

    為防止建筑內部火災向外卷吸蔓延引燃外墻外保溫材料,應劃定使用非A級外保溫材料的建筑物外墻啟齒部位(如外窗)上方應設置擋火梁。

    這種隔火構造方式原理與防火隔離帶類似,不燃材料的擋火梁水平設置于門窗洞口的上邊沿,并伸出門窗洞口豎向邊沿一定長度,以防止室內火焰向上卷吸蔓延。

    3、無空腔構造
    無空腔做法可解決空腔帶來的火災危害。

    工程中常用的幕墻-空氣間層-保溫板這一類的構造就應該避免。

    有機保溫板與基層墻體之間或與裝飾面層之間假如有空腔存在,將在火災發生時為燃燒提供氧氣,在火災發生后提供煙囪通道,加速火災的蔓延。所以在保溫板的施工工藝中,要避免使用產生空腔的點粘法,盡量采用滿粘法。該構造中保溫板在幕墻內部并與幕墻保持一定的曠地空閑,曠地空閑內存在大量空氣,保溫材料一旦被引燃,將迅速蔓延,并且不易撲滅,由于幕墻擋住了消防用水接觸保溫板,如央視新址北配樓西立面的鈦鋅板-擠塑板就是這一類構造,火災損失嚴峻。這類構造的火災危險性還體現在金屬骨架上,金屬骨架在施工的時候不可避免的要使用電焊、切割工藝,這些施工工藝會產生火星,輕易引燃保溫材料。
    4.防火保護層面
    保護面層可以減少和消除火災對保溫材料的侵襲,水泥砂漿就可以作為保溫層的防火保護面層,不外在火災前提下,普通水泥砂漿輕易開裂,影響防護效果,應該改善防護砂漿的耐火機能;也可以采用?;⒅楸貪{料和巖棉等不燃材料作為防火保護面層。防火面層的厚度越厚,防火保護效果越好,應該通過試驗和外墻外保溫的防火要求確定防火保護面層的種類和厚度。

    本文由www.basiloglue.com提供 

    Exterior insulation system of fire protection construction measures TanYue must have the four aspects: fire belt, firestop beam, no cavity structure and fire protection layer.
    1, fire belt
    It should be pointed out that the use of thermoplastic exterior insulation system of flammable and combustible materials, because during flows dripping, fire, fire even set fire belt easily also fire spread "by leaps and bounds", so the application of fire belt technology, necessary external wall thermal insulation material at the same time a certain limit. Fire partition size should be based on the importance of building and burning heat preservation material function identified and shall be clearly defined in the specification.
    Fire belt should choose non-combustible material, should be in the cavity structure damage cavity structure of the overall technology, and in the vertical direction and horizontal direction should be set up. Fire belt can effectively prevent flame spread, prevent metope whole combustion exterior insulation system, a "fire zone" and "fire", the effect of exterior wall thermal insulation system in particular in the cavity construction curtain wall structure should be a large number of applications.
    2, firestop beam
    To prevent internal fire spread outward entrainment ignition exterior insulation materials, should be defined using the class A building external wall was reluctant to part of external thermal insulation material (such as outside the window) should be set above the fire damper beam.
    This way of fire insulation structure principle is similar to fire belt, non-combustible material block fire level Settings in the Windows and doors hole on the edge of the hole and out door vertical edge with a certain length, in order to prevent the indoor fire spread upward entrainment.
    3, no cavity structure
    No cavity approach can solve the fire hazards are caused by the cavity.
    The curtain wall is commonly used in engineering - layer between air - insulation board should avoid this kind of structure.
    Between organic insulation board and wall at the grass-roots level or if free space between architectural surface and exist, will be to provide oxygen for combustion, when the fire broke out after the fire provide chimney channel, accelerate the spread of fire. In the construction process of insulation board, therefore, to avoid using cavity point sticking method, try to use full stick method. The insulation board on the wall of the internal structure and maintain a certain opening free with curtain wall, kuang free within a large number of air, heat preservation material once burned, will spread quickly, and not easy to put out, because of the curtain wall blocking the fire water contact insulation board, such as CCTV new site north of flats west facade of titanium zinc plate - extruded board is this kind of structure, fire loss serious. Fire risk of this kind of structure is embodied in the metal frame, metal frame at the time of construction inevitably to use electric welding, cutting process, the construction process will produce Mars, easily ignited insulation materials.
    4. The fire protection level
    Fire protection layer can reduce and eliminate on heat preservation material, cement mortar can be as fire protection layer of insulation, without external fire, ordinary cement mortar is easy craze, influence protective effect, should improve the protective function of refractory mortar; Also can use vitrified beads insulation paste and non-combustible material such as rock wool as fire protection layer. Fire layer thickness is thicker, fire protection, the better, should be through the test and exterior insulation fire prevention requirements determine the type and thickness of fire protection layer.

     

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